This is an unofficial mirror of Tkinter reference documentation (based on Python 2.7 and Tk 8.5) created by the late John Shipman.
It was last updated in 2013 and is unmaintained. [More info]
The ttk widgets can change their appearance during the execution of the program. For example, when a widget is disabled, it will not respond to mouse or keyboard actions. Typically a disabled widget presents a different appearance so that the user might realize that the widget will not respond to the mouse.
In general, every ttk widget has a set of state flags that you can use to make the appearance of a widget change during execution. Each state may be set (turned on) or reset (turned off) independently of the other states. The states and their meanings:
||The mouse is currently within the widget.|
||This state is reserved for application use.|
||Under Windows or MacOS, the widget is located in a window that is not the foreground window.|
||The widget will not respond to user actions.|
||The widget currently has focus.|
||The contents of the widget are not currently valid.|
||The widget is currently being pressed (e.g., a button that is being clicked).|
The widget will not allow any user actions to change
its current value. For example, a read-only |
||The widget is selected. Examples are checkbuttons and radiobuttons that are in the “on” state.|
Some states will change in response to user actions, for
pressed state of a
Button. Your program can interrogate, clear, or set
any state by using functions described in Section 46, “Methods common to all ttk widgets”.
The logic that changes the appearance of a widget is tied to
one of its elements. To interrogate or set up dynamic
behavior for a specific style, given an instance
.Style, use this method, where
is the element's name, e.g.,
styleName, *p, **kw)
To determine the dynamic behavior of one option of a given style element, pass the option name as the second positional argument, and the method will return a list of state change specifications.
Each state change specification is a sequence
(. This sequence means
that when the widget's current state matches all the
parts, set the option to the value
. Each item
is either a state name, or a state name preceded
by a “
!”. To match, the
widget must be in all the states described by items that
don't start with “
it must not be in any of the states
that start with “
For example, suppose you have an instance
and you call it like this:
Further suppose that the return value is:
[('pressed', '#ececec'), ('selected', '#4a6984')]
This means that when a checkbutton is in the
pressed state, its
option should be set to the color
and when the checkbutton is in the
indicatorcolor option should
be set to
You may also change the dynamic behavior of an element by
passing one or more keyword arguments to the
.map() method. For example, to get the behavior
of the above example, use this method call:
s.map('TCheckbutton', indicatoron=[('pressed', '#ececec'), ('selected', '#4a6984')])
Here's a more complex example. Suppose you want to
create a custom button style based on the standard
TButton class. We'll name our style
Wild.TButton; because our name ends with
.TButton”, it automatically
inherits the standard style features. Here's how to
set up this new style:
s = ttk.Style() s.configure('Wild.TButton', background='black', foreground='white', highlightthickness='20', font=('Helvetica', 18, 'bold')) s.map('Wild.TButton', foreground=[('disabled', 'yellow'), ('pressed', 'red'), ('active', 'blue')], background=[('disabled', 'magenta'), ('pressed', '!focus', 'cyan'), ('active', 'green')], highlightcolor=[('focus', 'green'), ('!focus', 'red')], relief=[('pressed', 'groove'), ('!pressed', 'ridge')])
This button will initially show white text on a black background, with a 20-pixel-wide focus highlight.
If the button is in
it will show yellow text on a magenta background.
If the button is currently being pressed, the text
will be red; provided the button does not have focus, the background will be
cyan. The tuple
'cyan') is an example of how you can make an
attribute dependent on a combination of states.
If the button is active (under the cursor), the text will be blue on a green background.
The focus highlight will be green when the button has focus and red when it does not.
The button will show ridge relief when it is not being pressed, and groove relief when it is being pressed.